Will this Facebook advertisement be less expensive if I remove the 'sign up' button?

Yes, it can increase the budget if your goal is different and the ad objective is different. There are different ad objective in facebook ads like Website Conversion Ads, Post Engagement Ads etc. which are used for different goals. You can choose which goal you want to advertise on facebook!

This button is called Call-To-Action. If you are promoting Ecommerce Product you can select SHOP NOW button, If you are promoting Blog Post you can select LEARN MORE button, If you are driving them to lead pages you can select SIGN UP button.

Here is whole detailed guide about facebook ads types: Types of Facebook Ads

Look for which ad type match with your goal and run the ad.

Is information falsifiable (in Karl Popper terms)?

No. Popper’s falsification applies to statements or claims, typically bundled into theories. For example, the statement “all swans are white” can be falsified by observing a swan that is not white.

Information is, at least to physicists, a specific quantity that doesn't always match our casual use of the word. It is pretty hard to define, but it is essentially any part of a system that can distinguish one object from another. So there is an information value for the knowledge that two particles masses are different, or that their positions are different. Physicists are careful to include uncertainties in this information, so you couldn't falsify it, not in the way that was significant to Popper.

How does a hosting company know my domain name?

You have to ‘point your domain’ to the hosting company.

  1. You have hosting with the ABC Hosting company
  2. You have just set up a website, inside of the ABC hosting company, using the name of your new domain www dot mynewname dot com
  3. You have just bought domain name from a separate company XYZ that has cheap domain names.

(this is the ideal situation by the way, you should ALWAYS separate your hosting company from your domain name provider)

4. You have to POINT your domain name to your new hosting provider.

5. Your hosting provider will give you (or already have given you) , something called NAME SERVERS , these are numbers and letters and look like this :

NS1.mynameserver.com

NS2.mynameserver.com

6. Now you have to go to your Doman Name site ( XYZ) and CHANGE your NAME SERVERS to match the NAME SERVERS of your hosting company. Remember to SAVE it.

7. This will now tell the internet where your new domain name lives.

8. It may take a few minutes for this change to propagate thought the internet

Are paradoxes, like the liar's paradox, undecipherable sentences?

Most paradoxes fall into two categories:

  1. Facts that contradict our intuition, e.g. the Monty Hall problem
  2. Insufficiently formalised statements that are only paradoxical because there is no well-defined context. Consider the statement “This sentence is false”. Apparently, it seems to be a contradiction. But on the other hand, we did not define what “sentence” , “false” or even “this” means. Once we develop actual formal systems for problems like this, the paradox usually disappears. For example, in a consistent formal system, you cannot express the statement “This sentence is false” because statements either cannot refer to themselves or the system’s truth predicate cannot be defined within the system

How do Gaussian Mixture Models work? How and where they can be used?

The best answer is here: A quick tour of mclust. GMMs are very useful when you know the general shape of the curve that your clusters follow (e.g., linear or quadratic). Their undoing is non-Gaussian distribution of data in clusters. So if your data distribution is expected to have a heavy tail (to be skewed), you'll need to first transform your data.

Are exported US fighter jets likely to have a backdoor in case the buyer becomes an enemy of the US?

When South Africa wanted to replace their aging fighter jets in the late 90s Lockheed Martin's F-16 Falcons became the main contender and the A/B models were offered by the US under 2 main conditions:

  1. They would not allow SA to integrate any of their weapon systems on the jet fighters
  2. They would not allow full control on modifications. Eg. An US officer would need to be present in all operations.

Both of the conditions were deal breakers. South Africa manufactures a lot of quality weapons including indigenous missiles and bombs and they definitely would have wanted to integrate them on the F-16s.

Also the South Africa Defence Forces regularly takes part in training exercises with its neighbors including foes of the US, Zimbabwe. There is no way USA would have given the F-16s the green light to go to Zimbabwe.

I am not sure if it was Turkey or Pakistan that was missing a F-16 and the US had to locate it using a clandestine tracker fitted on the F-16 during assembly.

To answer your question on the exported US fighter jets it has a stringent conditions attached to them to protect sensitive technology and also in case the friend becomes the foe but that has not stopped Iran from operating US fighter jets such as the F-4 Phantom IIs and F-14 Tomcats 37 years after falling out with the US.

How to stop being depressed and find a reason to live

If you’re actually having suicidal thoughts you should see a doctor as soon as possible. It could be chemical, in which case there could be a simple remedy. The therapy they provide could also hep.

Meditation could help you gain more control over your thoughts.

Otherwise, like I said in another answer:

Volunteer at a soup kitchen

Or somewhere else they help people. Helping other people is good for your self esteem.

Although it’s incredibly inconvenient, humans are also social animals. We feel better after we’ve socialised. At a soup kitchen you will socialise with people.

The soup kitchen will also give you a sense of purpose. It’s probably better than what a lot of “non-lost” people do every day.