Does giving birth by Caesarean section affect the baby's height later in life?


In reference to your hypothesis that getting "pulled through the birth canal" might make you taller, in general we try not to "pull" a baby through the birth canal, we want it to be pushed out. There is some pulling involved in a forceps delivery but not the kind that would elongate the spine.

Also there is no evidence that pulling would cause growth.

Your height, is related to genetics and can be influenced by nutrition (as in malnourished children generally have stunted growth).

Childhood Memories: Did you keep an inventions notebook as a child?

I also kept such a notebook.
I was obsessed by a couple of main themes:

Firstly rockets. I had designs all sorts of rocket-powered things. These ranged from the very derivative, e.g. how I could improve an old fashioned pulley and handle restaurant delivery system* (from a favourite childhood restaurant: The Bad Ass Café [1]) to the obvious (rocket-propelled trains) to all stops in between.
Thinking back I was surely much influenced by the Professor Branestawm** [2] stories, in all their Rube Goldberg-ian [3] glory.
As I've commented elsewhere, these 'inventions' were informed by a pretty solid practical knowledge of the mechanics of channeling the reaction between baking soda and vinegar [4] through an appropriate 'focuser' such as a pin-hole in a cigar tube [5] but blissfully ignorant of actual rocket science, let alone physics.

Secondly, natural history and evolution. I was always interested in this, for as long as I can remember and remain so to this day (dream job? xeno-biologist [6]  =).  What I loved to do as a child was draw pictures of how I thought life could look if it had evolved in a non-Earth environment. I was consumed by this and kept it up for at least 3-4 years. Some hits: I "postulated" front-focusing binocular vision as the 'default' for bipedal lifeforms, which isn't bad, considering how mad I was about dinosaurs*** at the time (e.g. all my influences would not have had this)…
Others were…ah…more fanciful, let's put it that way!

Prompted by this question, overall I remember now that the most frequent small gifts I got as a child, from aunts and family friends and the like, were notebooks, copybooks or similar (or markers and the like with which to draw in them).

Despite my tongue in cheek references to my "successes" above, I am profoundly, deeply grateful that this was so. I may not – yet! – have a gig as a Xeno-whatever, or rocket scientist, but I have the everlasting gift of my imagination, encouraged by such people, and for that,  I can never repay them.

EDIT: Oh! And I forgot, I was also interested in miniaturisation. I saw a TV feature (I think it was "That's Incredible") on the "world's smallest TV" as it was at the time, and got really interested in designing the smallest fully-featured apartment (we lived in NYC at the time) one could have. So the bath doubled as a bed, miniature TV, fridge and the like, again very Professor Branestawm-influenced and again, something that remains a topic of interest for me to this day, e.g. the "Tiny Houses" movement [7].

* I can't find any citation for this but what I am talking about is a system of overhead ropes and guidelines in a restaurant, with little 'gondolas' hanging off them. The waiting staff would load up a gondola with condiments, or the check/change or small general items, move a physical switch and by means of yanking a drop down handle, mechanically propel the items to the destination table.
I originally thought this was a common "Olde Tyme" way of conveying such items in restaurants but, not being able to find any references to it besides the Bad Ass Café [1], maybe it was unique? Disappointingly this restaurant has changed hands and the new owners seem to have done away with the pulley and rope delivery system.
In any case, my idea was the same, but rockets.

** Say it out loud a few times =)

*** I'm still crazy about dinosaurs, and prehistoric mammals, esp. megafauna.

[1] The Bad Ass Cafe & Restaurant Temple Bar, Dublin
[2] Professor Branestawm
[3] Rube Goldberg
[4] Apologies in advance for the page design: Vinegar + Baking Soda Explanation
[5] How to Make a Baking Soda and Vinegar Rocket
[6] xenobiologist (Meaning of)
[7] Tiny House Blog – Living Simply in Small Spaces

What should you know about how human memory works or doesn't work?

The notion that has been most illuminating to me is the idea that, at a functional level, there are different types of memory.

For starters, researchers generally partition memory into Declarative memory (memory for facts and semantic knowledge) and Procedural memory (memory for skills and sequences). This functional difference is also sometimes discussed as implicit versus explicit memory systems, but recent research suggests that this division isn't as useful (it never really made sense to me as those divisions relate to method of acquisition, not the nature of the knowledge).

This difference relates to everything from the idea of "it's like riding a bike" to remembering songs from your childhood but not remembering the name of the person you met yesterday.

In addition to this functional dissociation, there seems to be a neuroanatomical dissociation as well, with declarative memory being seated more in the Hippocampus and procedural memory being associated with the Basal ganglia. One example of this is when we compare the symptoms of Alzheimer's disease and Page on, two degenerative diseases that are similar chemically, but affect different parts of the brain and therefore affect different aspects of our being.

Declarative memory is often divided into Episodic memory, your memory of the scene and events of your life, and Semantic memory, your knowledge of the world. The former could be something like remembering what you did for your birthday last year; the latter something like Washington DC is the capital of the US. Remember when I said declarative memory was seated in the hippocampus? Well, I sort of lied, because whereas episodic memory is  centered on the hippocampus, semantic memory is distributed more in the prefrontal cortex. And I'm actually lying again: They both are probably reliant on both cortical regions, depending on who you ask.

There is also something referred to Working memory, which is is sort of like your brain's RAM and is what is referred to by the The Magical Number Seven, Plus or Minus Two, which you may have heard about. This is what allows you to remember a phone number, or the beginning of this sentence as you read the rest of it and put it together into a full meaningful phrase. It's been suggested that there are 2 (multiple?) ranges of working memory — what you experiences barely a second ago, aka Echoic memory, and what you experienced within the past minute or so.

We're wading into tricky terminological territory here in contrasting Short-term memory with working memory and so on. And with good reason: It's not clear where these divisions lie with respect to function and anatomy. Indeed, working memory could just be a version of declarative memory: Psychology, College of LAS, University of Illinois; Nelson Cowan, Dept. of Psychological Sciences, Univ. of Missouri-Columbia.

One tl;dr summary is:
1) Procedural memory
2) Declarative memory
           a) Semantic memory
           b) Episodic memory
                    i) Working memory
                           A) Echoic memory
                           B) Short-term memory

Alternatively, working memory can be its own high-level branch; working memory can also be further separated into things like phonological store, visual working memory, central executive and so on.

Ultimately, regardless of whether these systems require distinct neural mechanisms or can all be subsumed under a single model, at a functional level, there are interesting subdivisions of memory. I think  that should be one of the first things to know about how memory works if you're interested in the subject.

What is Microsoft's Cosmos?

Cosmos is Microsoft's internal BigData analysis platform.

Cosmos is composed of a distributed compute component (somewhat comparable to Hadoop's Map-Reduce, using the Microsoft Dryad solution, which (unlike Map-Reduce) allows an arbitrary DAG of computation.
Cosmos supports a SQL-like syntax (similarly to HIVE/PIG) and includes a distributed storage component (comparable to HDFS); Overall, Cosmos provides highly scalable, reliable, fault-tolerant and automatically scaled compute operations on huge data sets.

According to [1], [3], Cosmos allows the use of SQL-like syntax such as

source = EXTRACT col1, col2 FROM “A”

Data = SELECT * FROM source where (condition)

to extract data without the need for explicit Map/Reduce primitive use by the user-developer.

The SCOPE language, just like SQL, also supports [3] operators such as where, join, reduce, as well as user-defined operators. These include reducers (basically, input parsing) and other programmable operations in user code [1,3], and generates a parallel, optimized [1] 'execution plan' for the defined queries.

Cosmos is used within Microsoft extensively, across a huge number of servers [4], stores a large amount of data, and processes a vast amount of data daily: "Every day we process hundreds of petabytes of data from Bing, AdCenter, MSN, and Windows Live" [Software Development Engineer, Principal-BING Job] .

I think that's about all we made public so far.

Public sources: Page on Microsoft ☁ Stuff Yaron Finds Interesting ☁… ☁ Page on Microsoft ☁ Cloud Storage @Microsoft (with the Cosmos Team) is hiring!

How do I build a sales system that will replace my sales reps?

Good sales reps provide so much more value than just acting as order takers. Anyone who tells you otherwise has never done sales themselves or has never met a good sales person. Rather then trying to completely eliminate your sales rep, I would focus on using technology to make your sales reps and sales process as efficient as possible. Yes, many customers would probably fill an order form and wouldn't mind being self-serviced. Yet, there are many others that need to be convinced, closed or need to talk to someone before they make a decision. So by eliminating sales reps you would be leaving money on the table. Try having an order form that populates your CRM through its API and let the sales person get involved only in the necessary accounts.

Which celebrities do you FEEL are the most honest?

Aamir Khan. Undoubtedly. This guy wants to contribute to the society and he proved it right by always making movies that give us a message. Later on he went on to make "Satyamev Jayate" – a show focusing on the major problems in India and how to improve on them. This show lost him a mammoth 45 Crore Rupees but he said he sees it not as a loss but as an investment.

Huge respect for this guy!!!

Why does the 45W MagSafe adapter heat up much more than a 60W adapter?

Old thread I know. My early 2014 rMBP15 magsafe connector gets so hot when an external 27 inch display port monitor is connected when using FCP or compressor that if I accidentally touch the connector with my pinky, it burns painfully. My early 2013 rMBP15 used to get quite warm, but not so hot that it would burn a finger.

I am now noticing discoloration of the white power wire cover and cracking of the strain relief due to the heat (this is my desktop cord, I use another adapter when on the move). This can't be a good thing for reliability?

I think perhaps the GPU is in that corner and it gets toasty when used heavily and, in turn, the heat gets conducted out from it and a lot ends up on the magsafe connector. The aluminum case is quite warm, but not uncomfortable to the touch, or not nearly as uncomfortable as the connector. The power brick itself remains just warm to the touch. The case fans are sometimes full blast, but the connector will get very hot regardless of fan speed. Battery is fully charged.

From what I've read this is normal operation, but I wonder if Apple will replace the power adapter due to the deterioration brought on by the heat.